In the course of evolution over nearly four billion years, living creatures have acquired structures and functions that are suitable for their surroundings. In the 21st century, people have rapidly deepened their understanding of such lives, and it is necessary to develop new science and technology focused on life, humans and the environment in light of the reflections on what science and technology have brought about to the human society and the global environment in the previous century. Especially, science and technology related to life and humans have been integrated with the recently growing fields of computer technology and nanotechnology, and are expected to develop dramatically as new academic disciplines. Since they are also expected to expand markets as new industries, international research and development will become increasingly competitive.